Efficacy and safety of endovascular brachytherapy combined with transarterial chemoembolization for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with type III or IV portal vein tumor thrombosis

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complicated with type III OR IV portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and to further analyze the prognostic predictors for the patients with HCC and PVTT.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 54 patients who were diagnosed with HCC complicated with type III or IV PVTT and received EVBT combined with modified TACE treatment from January 2017 to June 2019. Adverse events, treatment response, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and stent patency were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this treatment. The independent prognostic predictors of OS were also statistically analyzed by the cox regression model.
Results: No adverse events occurred in the enrolled patients receiving EVBT combined with TACE treatment. The objective response and disease control rates were 42.6% and 96.3% respectively within 4 weeks after the treatment. The median OS and PFS were 209 days and 138 days, respectively. Cumulative stent patency rate was 70.4% at the last follow-up. AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml, ECOG PS > 1, Child Pugh grade B, and non-hemihepatic HCC were independent risk predictors to https://biodas.org/ evaluate the OS of HCC patient with type III or IV PVTT.
Conclusions: EVBT combined with TACE was a relatively effective and safe strategy to treat HCC patients with type III or IV PVTT.

Dual immune checkpoint blockade in hepatocellular carcinoma: where do we stand?

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Surgery, local ablative therapies and liver transplantation are the only potentially curative strategies, but the majority of patients present with advanced disease at diagnosis or develop recurrence after surgery.
In recent years, immunotherapy for HCC has received growing interest, and one of the most promising strategies is the association of two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which has already demonstrated its potential in other solid tumors such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we discuss the role and the biologic rationale of dual immune checkpoint blockade in HCC patients, focusing on the two ICI combinations: nivolumab plus ipilimumab and durvalumab plus tremelimumab.

Exposome and Skin. Part 2. The Influential Role of the Exposome, Beyond UVR, in Actinic Keratosis, Bowen’s Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Proposal

Actinic keratosis (AK) is the main risk factor for the development of cutaneous invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). It represents the first sign of severe chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure, which has a clear significant effect. Nevertheless, the skin is exposed to many other exposome factors which should be thoroughly considered. Our aim was to assess the impact of exposome factors other than ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the etiopathology of AK and Bowen’s disease (BD) and progression of AK to SCC and to design tailored prevention strategies.
We performed an exhaustive literature search in September 2021 through PubMed on the impact of exposome factors other than UVR on AK, BD and SCC. We conducted several parallel searches combining terms of the following topics: AK, BD, SCC and microbiome, hormones, nutrition, alcohol, tobacco, viral infections, chemical contaminants and air pollution. Notably, skin microbiome studies have shown how Staphylococcus aureus infections are associated with AK and AK-to-SCC progression by the production of chronic inflammation. Nutritional studies have demonstrated how a caloric restriction in fat intake, oral nicotinamide and moderate consumption of wine significantly reduce the number of premalignant keratoses and SCC.
Regarding lifestyle factors, both alcohol and smoking are associated with the development of SCC in a dose-dependent manner. Relevant environmental factors are viral infections and chemical contaminants. Human papillomavirus infections induce deregulation of cellular proliferation and are associated with AK, BD and SCC. In addition to outdoor jobs, occupations such as industrial processing and farming also increase the risk of developing keratoses and SCC. The exposome of AK will undoubtedly help the understanding of its etiopathology and possible progression to SCC and will serve as a basis to design tailored prevention strategies.

A Genome-Wide Investigation of Effects of Aberrant DNA Methylation on the Usage of Alternative Promoters in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Background: The alternative usage of promoters provides a way to regulate gene expression, has a significant influence on the transcriptome, and contributes to the cellular transformation of cancer. However, the function of alternative promoters (APs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been systematically studied yet. In addition, the potential mechanism of regulation to the usage of APs remains unclear. DNA methylation, one of the most aberrant epigenetic modifications in cancers, is known to regulate transcriptional activity. Whether DNA methylation regulates the usage of APs needs to be explored. Here, we aim to investigate the effects of DNA methylation on usage of APs in HCC.
Methods: Promoter activities were calculated based on RNA-seq data. Functional enrichment analysis was implemented to conduct GO terms. Correlation tests were used to detect the correlation between promoter activity and methylation status. The LASSO regression model was used to generate a diagnostic model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the overall survival between high and low methylation groups. RNA-seq and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) in HCC samples were performed to validate the correlation of promoter activity and methylation.
Results: We identified 855 APs in total, which could be well used to distinguish cancer from normal samples. The correlation of promoter activity and DNA methylation in APs was observed, and the APs with negative correlation were defined as methylation-regulated APs (mrAPs). Six mrAPs were identified to generate a diagnostic model with good performance (AUC = 0.97). Notably, the majority of mrAPs had CpG sites that could be used to predict clinical outcomes by methylation status. Finally, we verified 85.6% of promoter activity variation and 92.3% of methylation changes in our paired RNA-seq and WGBS samples, respectively. The negative correlation between promoter activity and methylation status was further confirmed in our HCC samples.
Conclusion: The aberrant methylation status plays a critical role in the precision usage of APs in HCC, which sheds light on the mechanism of cancer development and provides a new insight into cancer screening and treatment.

A case of locally advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the cecum with long-term survival

A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a right lower abdominal mass and general fatigue. Preoperative examination suggested a large ovarian tumor or cecal carcinoma. However, her intraoperative diagnosis was colon cancer; we therefore performed an ileocecal resection with oophorectomy. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as adenosquamous carcinoma T4bN1M-stage IIIa.
We administrated CapeOX adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months. Adenosquamous carcinoma is extremely rare, at around 0.1% of all colorectal cancers, and usually has a poor prognosis. The patient is still alive without recurrence after 84 post-operative months, even with later developments of metachronous early colorectal cancer and breast cancer. We herein report a rare case of cecal ASC with good prognosis.

Whatman FTA cards versus plasma specimens for the quantitation of HIV-1 RNA using two real-time PCR assays

Background: Several studies have compared the use of dried blot spot (DBS) as an alternative to plasma specimens, mainly using Whatman 903 cards as filter paper. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Whatman FTA card (FTA card) specimens for HIV-1 viral load testing compared to plasma specimens using two real-time PCR assays manufactured by Roche and Abbott.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2017 and September 2017 on HIV-1 patients admitted to Yalgado Ouédraogo Teaching Hospital. Paired FTA cards and plasma specimens were collected and analysed using the Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 assay (Abbott) and COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan v2.0 (Roche).
Results: In total, 107 patients were included. No statistical differences (P>0.05) were observed between the mean viral loads obtained from the FTA cards and those of the plasma specimens using the Roche and Abbott assays. In total, 29 samples with Roche and 15 samples with Abbott assay showed discrepant results. At viral loads of ≤1000 copies ml-1, the sensitivity and specificity of the FTA cards were 78.6 and 100% with Roche, and 92.3 and 95.9% with Abbott, respectively. Both the Roche and Abbott assays showed good correlation and agreement between the FTA cards and plasma values.
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using FTA card filter paper for HIV-1 viral load testing. However, further studies will be required https://biodas.org/ for the validation of the use of FTA card filter paper in HIV-1 treatment monitoring.
Stability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Serological Markers in Samples Collected as HemaSpot and Whatman 903 Dried Blood Spots.
  • Dried blood spots (DBS) are frequently used in clinical testing for biosurveillance, infectious disease and confirmatory testing, and clinical trials, particularly for populations in remote areas. The HemaSpot-HF blood collection device (HS) provides an alternative format to the Whatman 903 cards (903) to simplify sample collection and processing. In this study, the performance of the HS was compared to that of the 903 using previously characterized clinical specimens and HIV seroconversion panels known to exhibit markers of early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • HS and 903 samples were prepared and tested by Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab enzyme immunoassay (EIA), GS HIV-1/-2 Plus O EIA, GS HIV-1 Western blot, and HIV-1 Geenius assays. Both HS and 903 performed well for up to 6 months at room temperature, but a marked loss of Western blot and low titer antibody signals from early infection samples was observed in samples stored for 180 days at elevated (37 to 45°C) temperatures and high humidity (95%).
  • HemaSpot samples placed in sealed bags with additional desiccant were protected from degradation and showed improved signal recovery relative to that of the 903. HS was easier to use than the 903 and showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility for early infection samples and improved stability.

Whatman Protein Saver Cards for Storage and Detection of Parasitic Enteropathogens.

Current methods to identify the etiology of diarrhea require laboratory facilities for storage of pathogens, which is often challenging in low-resource settings. This study evaluated the efficacy of a low-cost method for preserving stool specimens for the detection of parasitic enteropathogens using Whatman 903 protein saver cards (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). Stool samples known to be positive by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica parasites were preserved on 232 Whatman cards.
DNA was then extracted from cards using Chelex and Qiagen extraction protocols, and tested for these parasites using multiplex real-time PCR. We included stool samples known to have a higher parasite load (cycle threshold [ct]-value < 30) and those with a lower parasite load (ct values 30-35). Sensitivities and specificities were determined using DNA extracted directly from whole stool samples using Qiagen kits (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). For whole stool samples with ct values < 30, preserved directly on Whatman 903 protein saver cards for Giardia analysis, the sensitivity was 100% for both Qiagen and Chelex DNA extraction.
For E. histolytica, this was 100% for sensitivity for Qiagen and 80% for Chelex DNA extractions, and for Cryptosporidium, this was 80% for Qiagen and 50% for Chelex DNA extraction. The specificity was 100% for all parasites for all extraction procedures. Given the high sensitivity for stool samples with higher parasite loads, we recommend the use of the Whatman 903 protein saver card for preserving fecal specimens for the analysis of Giardia and E. histolytica using Qiagen DNA extractions in low-resource settings.

Comparison of stool collection and storage on Whatman FTA Elute cards versus frozen stool for enteropathogen detection using the TaqMan Array Card PCR assay.

The use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays for pathogen detection in travelers’ diarrhea (TD) field studies is limited by the on-site processing and storage requirements for fecal specimens. The objectives of this investigation were to i) characterize the pathogen distribution in deployed military personnel with TD using the TaqMan® Array Card PCR (TAC) on frozen stool and diarrheal smears on Whatman FTA Elute cards (FTA cards), and to ii) compare TAC detection of enteropathogen targets using smeared FTA cards and frozen stool, using TAC on frozen stool as the ‘reference standard’.
Stool samples, obtained from active duty personnel with acute TD enrolled in a field trial, were smeared onto FTA cards and stored at room temperature. A corresponding aliquot of stool was frozen in a cryovial. FTA cards and frozen stool samples were tested at a central lab, using a customized TAC for detection of TD pathogens. 187 paired frozen stool samples and smeared FTA cards were stored for a median of 712 days (IQR 396-750) before testing. Overall detection rates were 78.6% for frozen stool and 73.2% for FTA cards. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria identified. Using the TAC results on frozen stool as the reference, the overall sensitivity and specificity of TAC on FTA cards was 72.9% and 98.0% respectively.
TAC on FTA cards demonstrated a decrease in sensitivity with increasing frozen stool quantification cycle (Cq) (90.0% in FTA cards with a corresponding frozen stool Cq < 30, and 72.9% in samples with a corresponding frozen stool Cq < 35). Our findings support the use and further development of FTA cards in combination with a quantitative PCR assay for enteropathogen detection in TD field studies.

Detection of anti-hepatitis C virus and hepatitis C virus RNA in dried blood spot specimens using Whatman No. 1 filter paper.

Dried blood spot (DBS) specimen simplifies blood collection, processing, storage and shipment and may reduce the cost of testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We wanted to see if DBS using a cheap filter paper is reliable alternative to serum for detection of anti-HCV and HCV RNA.
At a tertiary care hospital in Northeast India, we collected 91 paired DBS and serum specimens from patients at risk of HCV infection from July 2014 to June 2015. DBS was collected on Whatman No. 1 filter paper. After processing, the specimens were subjected to anti-HCV detection by a third-generation Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The reactive DBS and serum specimens were further subjected to HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction. The results were analysed in paired screen-positive study design.
Anti-HCV was detected in 9 (9.9%) DBS specimens and 10 (10.9%) serum specimens. There was statistically significant (P < 0.0001) correlation between the optical density values of DBS and serum specimens (Pearson r = 0.9181, 95% confidence interval: 0.8781-0.9453). HCV RNA was detected in 5/9 (55.6%) reactive DBS and 9/10 (90.0%) reactive serum specimens. There was no correlation between HCV RNA levels in the DBS and the serum specimens. The relative sensitivity rate and the relative false-positive rate of DBS anti-HCV ELISA were 0.89 and 1.00, respectively.
DBS using Whatman No. 1 filter paper is quite reliable as serum for detection of anti-HCV. It can be useful in effective surveillance. However, it is not suitable for confirmation of chronic HCV infection.

THERMAL PRINTER PAPER

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Sample Quality Control of Cell-Free DNA

Sample Quality Control of Cell-Free DNA

Quality management of nucleic acid beginning materials is crucial to make sure the success of downstream experiments. Especially, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) developed to a robust device in virtually all genetic analysis and diagnostic areas. Due to the institution of low enter library protocols for NGS workflows sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) grew to become doable.

Since the downstream purposes are sometimes time-consuming and costly, tight QC steps are required to make sure that samples are match for functions. These QC steps may be carried out with automated electrophoresis programs. Different cell-free DNA samples had been evaluated for Sample high quality with an Agilent 4200 TapeStation system and the Agilent Cell-free DNA ScreenTape assay. Depending on preanalytical pattern therapy or extraction strategies the standard of cfDNA can fluctuate.

The outcomes embrace a rating to qualify cfDNA samples in response to their contamination stage with excessive molecular weight materials. This permits defining a threshold for goal pattern qualification previous to librarypreparation. Moreover, correct quantification of cfDNA samples is crucial to find out appropriate enter quantities for cfDNA librarypreparation previous to sequencing.

 Sample Quality Control of Cell-Free DNA
Sample Quality Control of Cell-Free DNA

Quality management of cfDNA is crucial to make sure the success of downstream experiments. Automated electrophoresis programs standardize pattern high quality management and allow goal pattern integrity evaluation in addition to the institution of high quality thresholds.

Automated Workflow for Somatic and Germline Next Generation Sequencing Analysis in Routine Clinical Cancer Diagnostics

Thanks to customized drugs developments and collaborations between trade, scientific analysis teams and regulatory companies, subsequent technology sequencing (NGS) is popping into a standard observe quicker than one might have initially anticipated.

When contemplating scientific purposes of NGS in oncology, a fast workflow for DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, in addition to producing prime quality librarypreparation, may be actual challenges. Here we take into account these targets and the way making use of efficient automation expertise to NGS workflows could assist enhance yield, timing and quality-control. We firstly evaluated DNA restoration from archived FFPE blocks from three totally different guide extraction strategies and two automated extraction workstations.

The workflow was then applied to somatic (lung/colon panel) and germline (BRCA1/2librarypreparation for NGS evaluation exploiting two automated workstations. All industrial kits gave good ends in phrases of DNA yield and high quality.

On the opposite hand, the automated workstation workflow has been confirmed to be a sound computerized extraction system to acquire prime quality DNA appropriate for NGS evaluation (lung/colon Ampli-seq panel).

Moreover, it may be effectively built-in with an open liquid dealing with platform to supply high-quality libraries from germline DNA with extra reproducibility and excessive protection for focused sequences in much less time (BRCA1/2). The introduction of automation in routine workflow results in an enchancment of NGS standardization and elevated scale up of pattern preparations, lowering labor and timing, with optimization of reagents and administration.