Early cancer detection requires identification of cellular changes resulting from oncogenesis. Abnormal DNA methylation patterns occurring early in tumor development have been widely identified as early biomarkers for multiple types of cancer tumors. Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP) has permitted highly sensitive detection of these methylation changes at known biomarker locations.
MSP requires multiple sample preparation steps including protein digestion, DNA isolation, and bisulfite conversion prior to detection. In this work, we present a streamlined assay platform and instrumentation for integration of all sample processing steps required to obtain quantitative MSP signal from raw biological samples through the use of droplet magnetofluidic principles. In conjunction with this platform, we present a streamlined protocol for solid-phase https://biodas.org/ DNA extraction from cells and bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA, minimizing the processing steps and reagent volume for implementation on a compact assay platform.
Sensory analysis of hepatitis B virus DNA for medicinal clinical diagnostics based on molybdenum doped ZnO nanowires field effect transistor biosensor; a comparative study to PCR test results
In this paper, a bio-sensing setup for investigating hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) diagnosis including rapid testing and field effect transistor (FET) in label free assay is proposed. The FET biosensor was fabricated by molybdenum doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) in easy method and cost-free approach. The materialized NWs were synthesized by physical vapor deposition (PVD) growth mechanism.
The molybdenum dopant could bring about vacancy sites for DNA adsorption and electric charge transfer. The capability of the fabricated biosensor was evaluated by investigating the PCR-verified samples known as True Positive (TP), True Negative (TN), False Positive (FP) and False Negative (FN). The FET biosensor could materialize the clinical tests on samples TP, TN, FP and FN and could distinguish the clinical samples from each other. The designed biosensor showed more precision than the PCR-outcomes by exhibiting more sensitivity on labeled samples known as FN.
This research has analytical and comparative study on fabricated biosensor performance. The achieved results show that the biosensor had significant response to samples which have not been carefully detected by PCR test. The fabricated biosensor showed high accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility for differentiating (TP), (TN), (FP) and (FN) samples from healthy and normal sample. The response sensitivity was calculated and biosensor showed a detection limit (LOD) of 1 pM. The biosensor demonstrated high response and satisfied signal in the concentration ranges from 1 pM to 10 μM.
ACE2-based capacitance sensor for rapid native SARS-CoV-2 detection in biological fluids and its correlation with real-time PCR
The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 and its increasing threat to human health worldwide have necessitated the development of new technological tools to combat the virus. Particular emphasis is given to the development of diagnostic methods that monitor the spread of the virus rapidly and effectively.
In this study, we report the development and testing of an antibody-free biosensor, based on the immobilization of ACE2 protein on the surface of gold interdigitated electrode. When the sensor was used in laboratory conditions for targeting the virus’ structural spike protein, it showed a limit of detection [LOD] of 750 pg/μL/mm2. Thereafter, the response of the sensor to swab and saliva samples from hospitalized patients was examined.
The virus presence in the samples was confirmed by electrical effective capacitance measurements executed on the biosensor, and correlated with real-time PCR results. We verified that the biosensor can distinguish samples that are positive for the virus from those that are negative in a total of 7 positive and 16 negative samples.
In addition, the biosensor can be used for semi-quantitative measurement, since its measurements are divided into 3 areas, the negative samples, the weakly positive and the positive samples. Reproducibility of the experiments was demonstrated with at least 3 replicates and stability was tested by keeping the sensor standby for 7 days at 4 °C before repeating the experiment. This work presents a biosensor that can be used as a fast-screening test at point of care detection of SARS-CoV-2 since it needs less than 2 min to provide results and is of simple operation.
High-resolution melting PCR analysis for genotyping the gene polymorphism of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-10, and IFN-γ in lung transplant recipients
Background: High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a genotyping method which has the advantages of simple, rapid, low-cost and closed-tube operation.
Objectives: This study evaluated HRM analysis as an option for detecting the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of cytokine, and profiled the distribution of cytokine gene polymorphism in the lung transplant recipients (LTRs).
Material and methods: High-resolution melting-polymerase chain reaction (HRM-PCR) assays for genotyping tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (-308 A/G), tumor growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) (+869 T/C), interleukin 10 (IL-10) (-592 C/A, -819 T/C, -1082 G/A), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (+874 T/A) SNPs were developed on the LightCycler® 480. The SNPs of the aforementioned cytokine genes in 322 LTRs and 266 normal controls were detected using HRM-PCR approach. To confirm the accuracy of the HRM-PCR assay, we randomly selected 100 samples from the LTRs and detected the aforementioned SNPs with sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) method, using a commercial kit.
Results: The data show that the HRM-PCR assay can distinguish all the cytokine SNPs, and the results of HRM-PCR analysis are in complete concordance to the genotyping results obtained using a commercial kit (κ = 1.0). Our data also show that the allele and genotype frequencies of the abovementioned cytokine are not significantly different between the LTRs and the control groups (p > 0.05). In addition, we found the genotypes of TGF-β1 +869 associated with high expression phenotype were prevalent in the LTRs. On the contrary, for TNF-α -308, IL-10 and IFN-γ, the genotypes associated with low expression phenotype were most common in the LTRs.
Conclusions: In this study, we described a rapid, low-cost and high-throughput HRM-PCR technology for genotyping cytokine SNPs. Our data may be utilized for future studies examining the associations of cytokine gene polymorphisms with the prognosis of the LTRs.
A Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Low Pneumocystis jirovecii Levels
Here we report a new real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green which provides higher sensitivity for the specific detection of low levels of Pneumocystis jirovecii. To do so, two primer sets were designed, targeting the family of genes that code for the most abundant surface protein of Pneumocystis spp., namely the major surface glycoproteins (Msg), and the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSUrRNA) multicopy gene, simultaneously detecting two regions. PCR methods are instrumental in detecting these low levels; however, current nested-PCR methods are time-consuming and complex.
To validate our new real-time Msg-A/mtLSUrRNA PCR protocol, we compared it with nested-PCR based on the detection of Pneumocystis mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSUrRNA), one of the main targets used to detect this pathogen. All samples identified as positive by the nested-PCR method were found positive using our new real-time PCR protocol, which also detected P. jirovecii in three nasal aspirate samples that were negative for both rounds of nested-PCR.
Furthermore, we read both rounds of the nested-PCR results for comparison and found that some samples with no PCR amplification, or with a feeble band in the first round, correlated with higher Ct values in our real-time Msg-A/mtLSUrRNA PCR. This finding demonstrates the ability of this new single-round protocol to detect low Pneumocystis levels. This new assay provides a valuable alternative for P. jirovecii detection, as it is both rapid and sensitive.
Data organization and data mining represents one of the main challenges for modern high throughput technologies in pharmaceutical chemistry and medical chemistry. The presented open source documentation and analysis system provides an integrated solution (tutorial, setup protocol, sources, executables) aimed at substituting the traditionally used lab-book.
The data management solution provided incorporates detailed information about the processing of the gels and the experimental conditions used and includes basic data analysis facilities which can be easily extended.
Cost-effective geldocumentation using a web-cam.
In search for a cost effective gel documentation system applicable for different fields of molecular biology, we analyzed the capabilities of a cheap CCD-camera originally designed to capture images for transmission through the internet (web-cam) with regard to gel documentation. The camera was connected to a personal computer https://biodas.org/ by universal serial bus (USB) and used for the documentation of DNA separated on agarose gels and stained by ethidium-bromide using the software provided with the camera.
The web-cam provided digital images of sufficient quality for routine documentation and combined the low set-up costs of a Polaroid system with the low running costs of video capture systems, hence is ideal as a start-up system and as augmentation to existing equipment.
Persistence of the same Candida albicans strain despite fluconazole therapy. Documentation by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Candida albicans and other Candida species have emerged as major nosocomial pathogens associated with a high mortality. Therapeutic options for fungal infections are limited. Amphotericin B has been the mainstay of treatment for serious systemic candidal infections, but it is relatively toxic and associated with a variety of side effects. Fluconazole has been proposed as alternative therapy for the treatment of systemic candidiasis including candidemia. We report the case of a patient with fungemia in whom fluconazole failed to eradicate C. albicans and C. tropicalis.
These pathogens were recovered from sputum and urine cultures, respectively, on day 12 of intravenous fluconazole therapy. Molecular epidemiologic techniques employing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the persistence of the same C. albicans strain. Susceptibility studies showed a marked change in MICs of fluconazole between 24 and 48 hr, with an increase from less than or equal to 1.25 to greater than 80 micrograms/ml. Controlled trials will be needed to delineate the role of fluconazole in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis and its efficacy in comparison with amphotericin B. Amphotericin B should remain the drug of choice for such infections until data from controlled trials are available.
Inhibition of post-surgery tumour recurrence via a sprayable chemo-immunotherapy gel releasing PD-L1 antibody and platelet-derived small EVs
Background: Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, and surgery is an effective method to treat melanoma. Unfortunately, local residual micro-infiltrated tumour cells and systemic circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are significant causes of treatment failure, leading to tumour recurrence and metastasis.
Methods: Small EVs were isolated from platelets by differential centrifugation, and doxorubicin-loaded small EVs (PexD) was prepared by mixing small EVs with doxorubicin (DOX). PexD and an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (aPD-L1) were co-encapsulated in fibrin gel. The synergistic antitumour efficacy of the gel containing PexD and aPD-L1 was assessed both in vitro and in vivo.
Results: Herein, we developed an in situ-formed bioresponsive gel combined with chemoimmunotherapeutic agents as a drug reservoir that could effectively inhibit both local tumour recurrence and tumour metastasis. In comparison with a DOX solution, PexD could better bind to tumour cells, induce more tumour immunogenic cell death (ICD) and promote a stronger antitumour immune response. PexD could enter the blood circulation through damaged blood vessels to track and eliminate CTCs. The concurrent release of aPD-L1 at the tumour site could impair the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and restore the tumour-killing effect of cytotoxic T cells. This chemoimmunotherapeutic strategy triggered relatively strong T cell immune responses, significantly improving the tumour immune microenvironment.
Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the immunotherapeutic fibrin gel could “awaken” the host innate immune system to inhibit both local tumour recurrence post-surgery and metastatic potential, thus, it could serve as a promising approach to prevent tumour recurrence.
Clinical Comparison of I-gel and Laryngeal Mask Airway-Supreme Airway Devices During General Anaesthesia in the Paediatric Population
Objectives: Both the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (SLMA) and the I-gel (I-gel) are supraglottic airway devices (SADs) commonly used for airway management in paediatric patients. This study aims to compare the efficacy in terms of insertion and ventilation profiles of size 2 SLMA and the I-gel in anaesthetised paediatric patients.
Methods: 100 children were prospectively allocated to two groups depending upon the device inserted as SLMA (n = 50) and I-gel (n = 50). The primary outcomes were studied in terms of ease of insertion, haemodynamic changes, ventilation parameters, leak pressure and incidences of complications during general anaesthesia.
Results: There were no failed attempts in the insertion of the airways in either group. The SLMA was more easily inserted in the majority of cases compared to the I-gel group. The number of attempts for insertion and the time taken for insertion were comparable in the I-gel and the SLMA group (13.8462.38 vs. 14.0261.7) (P .57, .66). Securing an effective airway took <30 seconds in both the groups with an overall median duration of 15 seconds. There was no difficulty in passing the gastric tube in either group (P<.30). There was a statistical difference between the oropharyngeal seal pressure (OSP), which was 25.1861.59 and 22.1061.36 cmH2O for SLMA and I-gel, respectively (P<.001). Haemodynamic parameters after the insertion of the device were comparable, and there were no clinically important complications in the post-operative period.
Conclusions: Both the devices appeared to be simple and suitable for airway management during elective surgery in paediatric patients. However, the SLMA was easily inserted with less insertion time in the majority of patients. Also, it provides higher OSP during anaesthesia and is better tolerated during emergence, with minimal risk of injury to the oropharynx.
Transfer and Fixation of Denatured RNA in Agarose Gels to Membranes by Capillary Transfer
In most cases, fractionation of RNA by agarose gel electrophoresis is but a prelude to hybridization of the fractionated population to specific labeled probes that detect particular target mRNAs. RNA is first transferred from an agarose gel to a 2D support, usually a nylon membrane.
This protocol presents the steps involved in the transfer of RNA from an agarose gel to a membranous support, facilitated by the upward flow of buffer, followed by various methods for fixation of the RNA to the membrane in preparation for hybridization. An alternative method for transfer by downward capillary flow is also given.
Quantification of biothiols in living systems is essential to understand their biological applications. Here, we developed two activatable chemiluminescence probes (SHCL and NCCL) and investigated their utility in the bioimaging of intracellular biothiols by directly tethering 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl to the hydroxyl group of phenoxy-dioxetane. The design of these two probes differed in substituents of phenol-dioxetane, i.e., SHCL contained the ortho chlorine, whereas NCCL had the para hydroxymethyl. Upon glutathione (GSH) cleavage, both probes emitted significantly “turn-on” chemiluminescent signals. However, the chemiluminescence intensity based on NCCL declined with increasing GSH level above 5 mM, while SHCL exhibited much higher chemiluminescent intensity and a wider concentration range (0.5 μM-50 mM), which was much more suitable for sensing endogenous biothiols.
We further demonstrated that chlorine substitution in SHCL played an important role in bioimaging owing to the halogen effect, providing a lower pKa value and significant enhancement of the chemiluminescent emission. SHCL imaged the biothiols effectively in tumor cells and tumor-bearing mice. Additionally, this novel chemiluminescence probe can be easily used to evaluate the in vitro activity of acetylcholinesterase. Overall, we anticipate that SHCL may provide a facile and intuitive tool for https://biodas.org/ studying the role of biothiols in diseases.
Nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots based long-persistent chemiluminescencesystem for ascorbic acid imaging.
High photo-intensity and sluggish flight attenuation are important to highly sensitive chemluminescence imaging. Herein, we present a copper ion catalyzed long-persistent chemiluminescent imaging system of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) for ascorbic acid detection in fruit. NGQDs as luminescent probe are fabricated, emitting out chemluminescence with the direct oxidation by H2O2.
In addition, Cu2+ ion enlarges over two order magnitudes of NGQDs CL intensity (214 times) due to its catalyzed Fenton-like reaction for H2O2 decomposition, and displaying unique specificity against other metal ions. As a result, the twinkling luminescence of NGQDs is boosted and changes to hold persistent with small decay in the presence of copper ion exhibiting potential for CL imaging.
As an imaging model, a visual sensor based on Cu2+/NGQDs/H2O2 is developed for AA quantitative monitoring with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5μM (S/N=3) and applied in real AA detection in fruit. The CL imaging method demonstrated with high stability and proper sensitivity would provide a convenient and visual tool for AA determination, displaying promising candidates for imaging sensing.
Imagingsystems for westerns: chemiluminescence vs. infrared detection.
Western blot detection methods have traditionally used X-ray films to capture chemiluminescence. The increasing costs for film, reagents, and maintenance have driven researchers away from darkrooms to more sensitive and technologically advanced digital imaging systems. Cooled charge coupled devices (CCD) cameras capture both chemiluminescence and fluorescence images, with limitations for each detection method. Chemiluminescence detection is highly sensitive and relies on an enzymatic reaction that produces light, which can be detected by a CCD camera that records photons and displays an image based on the amount of light generated. However, the enzymatic reaction is dynamic and changes over time making it necessary to optimize reaction times and imaging.
Fluorescent detection with a CCD camera offers a solution to this problem since the signal generated by the proteins on the membrane is measured in a static state. Despite this advantage, many researchers continue to use chemiluminescent detection methods due to the generally poor performance of fluorophores in the visible spectrum. Infrared imaging systems offer a solution to the dynamic reactions of chemiluminescence and the poor performance of fluorophores detected in the visible spectrum by imaging fluorphores in the infrared spectrum.
Infrared imaging is equally sensitive to chemiluminescence and more sensitive to visible fluorescence due in part to reduced autofluorescence in the longer infrared wavelength. Furthermore, infrared detection is static, which allows a wider linear detection range than chemiluminescence without a loss of signal.
A distinct advantage of infrared imaging is the ability to simultaneously detect proteins on the same blot, which minimizes the need for stripping and reprobing leading to an increase in detection efficiency. Here, we describe the methodology for chemiluminescent (UVP BioChemi) and infrared (LI-COR Odyssey) imaging, and briefly discuss their advantages and disadvantages.
Line scanning system for direct digital chemiluminescenceimaging of DNA sequencing blots.
A cryogenically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with an area CCD array is used in a line scanning system for low-light-level imaging of chemiluminescent DNA sequencing blots. Operating the CCD camera in time-delayed integration (TDI) mode results in continuous data acquisition independent of the length of the CCD array. Scanning is possible with a resolution of 1.4 line pairs/mm at the 50% level of the modulation transfer function. High-sensitivity, low-light-level scanning of chemiluminescent direct-transfer electrophoresis (DTE) DNA sequencing blots is shown.
The detection of DNA fragments on the blot involves DNA-DNA hybridization with oligonucleotide-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and 1,2-dioxetane-based chemiluminescence. The width of the scan allows the recording of up to four sequencing reactions (16 lanes) on one scan. The scan speed of 52 cm/h used for the sequencing blots corresponds to a data acquisition rate of 384 pixels/s. The chemiluminescence detection limit on the scanned images is 3.9 x 10(-18) mol of plasmid DNA. A conditional median filter is described to remove spikes caused by cosmic ray events from the CCD images.
New advanced oxidation progress with chemiluminescence behavior based on NaClO triggered by WS 2 nanosheets
As one integral part of coping strategies for addressing water pollution, advanced oxidation progresses (AOPs) get enormous attentions in recent years. However, the complex synthesis and high cost of H2O2 and K2S2O8 hampered their developments. Herein, a novel AOP with the chemiluminescence (CL) property based on economic NaClO and WS2 nanosheets was proposed to achieve efficient decomposition of organic pollutants.
In this AOP, WS2 nanosheets exhibited a dual-function feature of the catalyst and energy acceptor. It demonstrated that the reaction order of WS2 nanosheets was equal to 0.8271 and enormous singlet oxygen (1O2),·ClO and hydroxyl radical (·OH) were generated in rhodamine B (RhB) degradation process. Interestingly, a strong CL emission was observed and reflected the relative concentration of 1O2 and·OH for adjusting the oxidizing capability in WS2 nanosheets-NaClO system.
Through a series of degradation tests, RhB, methylene blue (MB), p-nitrophenol and phenol were decomposed and the degradation efficiency of over 90% was achieved. Therefore, this study not only builds a chemiluminescent AOPs to eliminate organic pollutants, but also broadens the applications of WS2 nanomaterials and CL in environmental field.
PolyTek HRP Anti-Rabbit Polymerized Imaging System
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs)-derived photonic materials have confirmed great potential in producing renewable optical and engineering areas. However, it remains challenging to simultaneously possess toughness, strength, and multiple responses for developing high-performance sensors, intelligent coatings, flexible textiles, and multifunctional devices. Herein, the authors report a facile and robust strategy that poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) can be converged into the chiral nematic structure of CNCs by ultraviolet-triggered free radical polymerization in an N,N-dimethylformamide solvent system.
The resulting CNC-poly(PEGDMA) composite exhibits impressive strength (42 MPa), stretchability (104%), toughness (31 MJ m-3 ), and solvent resistance. Notably, it preserves vivid optical iridescence, displaying stretchable variation from red, yellow, to green responding to the applied mechanical stimuli. More interestingly, upon exposure to spraying moisture, it executes sensitive actuation (4.6° s-1 ) and multiple complex 3D deformation behaviors, accompanied by synergistic iridescent appearances.
Due to its structural anisotropy of CNC with typical left-handedness, the actuation shows the capability to generate a high probability (63%) of right-handed helical shapes, mimicking a coiled tendril. The authors envision that this versatile system with sustainability, robustness, mechanochromism, and specific actuating ability will open ahttps://biodas.org/ sustainable avenue in mechanical sensors, stretchable optics, intelligent actuators, and soft robots.
Understanding the Drying Behavior of Regenerated Cellulose Gel Beads: The Effects of Concentration and Nonsolvents
The drying behavior of regenerated cellulose gel beads swollen with different nonsolvents (e.g., water, ethanol, water/ethanol mixtures) is studied in situ on the macroscopic scale with an optical microscope as well as on nanoscale using small-angle/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques. Depending on the cellulose concentration, the structural evolution of beads during drying follows one of three distinct regimes.
First, when the cellulose concentration is lower than 0.5 wt %, the drying process comprises three steps and, regardless of the water/ethanol mixture composition, a sharp structural transition corresponding to the formation of a cellulose II crystalline structure is observed. Second, when the cellulose concentration is higher than 5.0 wt %, a two-step drying process is observed and no structural transition occurs for any of the beads studied. Third, when the cellulose concentration is between 0.5 and 5.0 wt %, the drying process is dependent on the nonsolvent composition.
A three-step drying process takes place for beads swollen with water/ethanol mixtures with a water content higher than 20%, while a two-step drying process is observed when the water content is lower than 20%. To describe the drying behavior governed by the cellulose concentration and nonsolvent composition, a simplified phase diagram is proposed.
Cellular Flocculation Using Concentrated Polymer Brush-Modified Cellulose Nanofibers with Different Fiber Lengths
In this study, concentrated polymer brush-modified cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with different fiber lengths were used for the flocculation of cells for systematically studying the mechanism of this unique cellular flocculation based on colloidal flocculation theory. Concentrated poly(p-styrenesulfonic acid sodium salt) brush-grafted CNF (CNF-PSSNa) with different fiber lengths were cultured with three different cell types to examine their influence on floc (cell clusters formed by cellular flocculation) characteristics. The floc size and survival rate could be controlled by modifying the CNF-PSSNa fiber lengths.
The three cell types showed the same flocculation tendency after culture, indicating the applicability of the method in different cell lines. After 2 weeks of culture, CNF-PSSNa increased the specific expression of hepatocytes compared to the two-dimensional cell culture. Thus, owing to its wide applicability, high cell viability, and ability to control cell size and improve cell function, this technology could be used as a new three-dimensional cell culture method.
Gold nanoparticles spontaneously grown on cellulose nanofibrils as a reusable nanozyme for colorimetric detection of cholesterol in human serum
Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are extensively used as peroxidase mimics. However, low catalytic activity, high synthesis cost, substrate-induced aggregation in reaction medium and difficulty in recovery and reuse still remain as major challenges. Here, a novel, simple, spontaneous, and reagent-less in-situ method for the production of AuNPs using dialdehyde cellulose nanofibrils (DACNF) is proposed. AuNPs synthesis time and size were greatly influenced by aldehyde content and the optimal aldehyde content for ultra-small AuNPs (≈10 nm) was 2.1 mM/g. AuNPs@DACNFs exhibited broad-spectrum peroxidase activity and steady-state kinetics revealed their better kinetic parameters (low Km and high Vmax) over horseradish peroxidase (HRP). AuNPs@DACNFs was further converted into paper strip, which served as a biosensor for H2O2 and cholesterol detection.
The proposed method exhibited wide linear response in the range of 10-90 μM and 0.05-0.45 mM, and detection limit of 0.39 μM and 1.9 μM for H2O2 and cholesterol, respectively. Great shelf life and reusability were evident by FE-SEM and ICP-OES analysis. The smartphone application “Color Grab” was used to enable the portable onsite detection. The results of cholesterol detection in human serum samples were in agreement with clinically observed values, suggesting the great potential of the probe in disease diagnosis.
COBL9 and COBL7 synergistically regulate root hair tip growth via controlling apical cellulose deposition
Root hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for the acquisition of water and minerals, interactions between plant and microbes. The deposition of cell wall materials in the tip enables root hairs to maintain elongation constantly. To date, our knowledge of the regulators that connect the architecture of cell wall and the root hair development remains very limited.
Here, we demonstrated that COBL9 and COBL7, two genes of COBRA-Like family in Arabidopsis as well as their counterparts in rice, OsBC1L1 and OsBC1L8, regulate root hair growth. Single mutant cobl9, double mutants cobl7 cobl9 and double mutants osbc1l1 osbc1l8 all displayed prematurely terminated root hair elongation, though at varying levels. COBL7-YFP and COBL9-YFP accumulate prominently in the growing tips of newly emerged root hairs.
Furthermore, cobl9, cobl7 cobl9 and osbc1l1 osbc1l8 mutants were defective in the enrichment of cellulose in the tips of the growing root hairs. We also discovered that overexpression of COBL9 could promote root hair elongation and salinity tolerance. Taken together, these results provide compelling evidence that the polarized COBL7 and COBL9 in the tip of the emerging root hairs have conserved roles in regulating root hair development and stress adaptation in dicots and monocots.
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complicated with type III OR IV portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and to further analyze the prognostic predictors for the patients with HCC and PVTT.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 54 patients who were diagnosed with HCC complicated with type III or IV PVTT and received EVBT combined with modified TACE treatment from January 2017 to June 2019. Adverse events, treatment response, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and stent patency were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this treatment. The independent prognostic predictors of OS were also statistically analyzed by the cox regression model.
Results: No adverse events occurred in the enrolled patients receiving EVBT combined with TACE treatment. The objective response and disease control rates were 42.6% and 96.3% respectively within 4 weeks after the treatment. The median OS and PFS were 209 days and 138 days, respectively. Cumulative stent patency rate was 70.4% at the last follow-up. AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml, ECOG PS > 1, Child Pugh grade B, and non-hemihepatic HCC were independent risk predictors to https://biodas.org/ evaluate the OS of HCC patient with type III or IV PVTT.
Conclusions: EVBT combined with TACE was a relatively effective and safe strategy to treat HCC patients with type III or IV PVTT.
Dual immune checkpoint blockade in hepatocellular carcinoma: where do we stand?
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Surgery, local ablative therapies and liver transplantation are the only potentially curative strategies, but the majority of patients present with advanced disease at diagnosis or develop recurrence after surgery.
In recent years, immunotherapy for HCC has received growing interest, and one of the most promising strategies is the association of two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which has already demonstrated its potential in other solid tumors such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we discuss the role and the biologic rationale of dual immune checkpoint blockade in HCC patients, focusing on the two ICI combinations: nivolumab plus ipilimumab and durvalumab plus tremelimumab.
Exposome and Skin. Part 2. The Influential Role of the Exposome, Beyond UVR, in Actinic Keratosis, Bowen’s Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Proposal
Actinic keratosis (AK) is the main risk factor for the development of cutaneous invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). It represents the first sign of severe chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure, which has a clear significant effect. Nevertheless, the skin is exposed to many other exposome factors which should be thoroughly considered. Our aim was to assess the impact of exposome factors other than ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the etiopathology of AK and Bowen’s disease (BD) and progression of AK to SCC and to design tailored prevention strategies.
We performed an exhaustive literature search in September 2021 through PubMed on the impact of exposome factors other than UVR on AK, BD and SCC. We conducted several parallel searches combining terms of the following topics: AK, BD, SCC and microbiome, hormones, nutrition, alcohol, tobacco, viral infections, chemical contaminants and air pollution. Notably, skin microbiome studies have shown how Staphylococcus aureus infections are associated with AK and AK-to-SCC progression by the production of chronic inflammation. Nutritional studies have demonstrated how a caloric restriction in fat intake, oral nicotinamide and moderate consumption of wine significantly reduce the number of premalignant keratoses and SCC.
Regarding lifestyle factors, both alcohol and smoking are associated with the development of SCC in a dose-dependent manner. Relevant environmental factors are viral infections and chemical contaminants. Human papillomavirus infections induce deregulation of cellular proliferation and are associated with AK, BD and SCC. In addition to outdoor jobs, occupations such as industrial processing and farming also increase the risk of developing keratoses and SCC. The exposome of AK will undoubtedly help the understanding of its etiopathology and possible progression to SCC and will serve as a basis to design tailored prevention strategies.
A Genome-Wide Investigation of Effects of Aberrant DNA Methylation on the Usage of Alternative Promoters in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Background: The alternative usage of promoters provides a way to regulate gene expression, has a significant influence on the transcriptome, and contributes to the cellular transformation of cancer. However, the function of alternative promoters (APs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been systematically studied yet. In addition, the potential mechanism of regulation to the usage of APs remains unclear. DNA methylation, one of the most aberrant epigenetic modifications in cancers, is known to regulate transcriptional activity. Whether DNA methylation regulates the usage of APs needs to be explored. Here, we aim to investigate the effects of DNA methylation on usage of APs in HCC.
Methods: Promoter activities were calculated based on RNA-seq data. Functional enrichment analysis was implemented to conduct GO terms. Correlation tests were used to detect the correlation between promoter activity and methylation status. The LASSO regression model was used to generate a diagnostic model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the overall survival between high and low methylation groups. RNA-seq and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) in HCC samples were performed to validate the correlation of promoter activity and methylation.
Results: We identified 855 APs in total, which could be well used to distinguish cancer from normal samples. The correlation of promoter activity and DNA methylation in APs was observed, and the APs with negative correlation were defined as methylation-regulated APs (mrAPs). Six mrAPs were identified to generate a diagnostic model with good performance (AUC = 0.97). Notably, the majority of mrAPs had CpG sites that could be used to predict clinical outcomes by methylation status. Finally, we verified 85.6% of promoter activity variation and 92.3% of methylation changes in our paired RNA-seq and WGBS samples, respectively. The negative correlation between promoter activity and methylation status was further confirmed in our HCC samples.
Conclusion: The aberrant methylation status plays a critical role in the precision usage of APs in HCC, which sheds light on the mechanism of cancer development and provides a new insight into cancer screening and treatment.
A case of locally advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the cecum with long-term survival
A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a right lower abdominal mass and general fatigue. Preoperative examination suggested a large ovarian tumor or cecal carcinoma. However, her intraoperative diagnosis was colon cancer; we therefore performed an ileocecal resection with oophorectomy. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as adenosquamous carcinoma T4bN1M-stage IIIa.
We administrated CapeOX adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months. Adenosquamous carcinoma is extremely rare, at around 0.1% of all colorectal cancers, and usually has a poor prognosis. The patient is still alive without recurrence after 84 post-operative months, even with later developments of metachronous early colorectal cancer and breast cancer. We herein report a rare case of cecal ASC with good prognosis.
Small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) provide nice hope as biomarkers of illness and response to therapy. This has been highlighted within the context of a number of medical circumstances resembling most cancers, liver illness, heart problems, and central nervous system issues, amongst many others. Here we assessed a number of steps concerned within the improvement of an ncRNA biomarker discovery pipeline, starting from pattern preparation to bioinformatic processing of small RNA sequencing knowledge.
A complete of 45 organic samples have been included within the current research. All libraries have been ready using the Illumina TruSeq Small RNA protocol and sequenced using the HiSeq2500 or MiSeq Illumina sequencers. Small RNA sequencing knowledge was validated using qRT-PCR. At every stage, we evaluated the professionals and cons of totally different strategies which may be appropriate for various experimental designs. Evaluation strategies included high quality of knowledge output in relation to hands-on laboratory time, price, and effectivity of processing.
Our outcomes present that good high quality sequencing libraries could be ready from small quantities of complete RNA and that various degradation ranges within the samples would not have a big impact on the general quantification of sncRNAs by way of NGS. In addition, we describe the strengths and limitations of three commercially obtainable library preparation strategies:
(1) Novex TBE PAGE gel;
(2) Pippin Prep automated gel system; and
(3) AMPure XP beads. We describe our bioinformatics pipeline, present suggestions for sequencing protection, and describe intimately the expression and distribution of all sncRNAs in 4 human tissues: whole-blood, mind, coronary heart and liver.
Ultimately this research gives instruments and end result metrics that can assist researchers and clinicians in selecting an acceptable and efficient high-throughput sequencing quantification technique for numerous research designs, and general producing invaluable info that may contribute to our understanding of small ncRNAs as potential biomarkers and mediators of organic capabilities and illness.